In the city, food supply such as rice and meat sold to the public was limited. If you want more, the black market had food available to sell at ten times the original cost.
The land reform program of the North Vietnamese government became enforced all Vietnam in 1975. The farmland and all farmers were organized into cooperatives in which the land and other factors of agricultural production would be owned and used collectively. Farmers did not receive title to the land. The government ultimately owned the land.
The workers received points for the quality and quantity of work performed. The points system eventually failed and was computed only on the basis of hours worked with no benefit to the quality of the work.
The rice production became stagnant in northern Vietnam and declined in southern Vietnam. The decline in the south contributed to the opposition to the collective farming system. To read more on land reform in Vietnam, please visit https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_reform_in_Vietnam.
Many southern Vietnamese fled Vietnam as boat people seeking refuge in other countries. There were many escape attempts and many were caught. Those who were not caught by the government were being raped and killed by pirates. Only a few ships made it to other countries safely. News of death and pirates were frightening experiences for those who stayed behind.